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Monday, February 17, 2014

Stages of Building Construction



Building a house is an intelligent and a complex process and home buying traditionally has been an important factor in one’s life. Very rarely there is thought given on what actually happened behind the construction facade to make a dream home into reality The construction phase of the home-building process is when all your dreams and plans come to realization. It is the easiest, most gratifying and most enjoyable part of the process. The methods and materials used to build a home vary from region to region, but the following are the eight basic steps must be completed for most newly built homes:

1. Site Cleaning: After a developer purchases land the site needs to be cleaned. The site cleaning may include removing of trees and leveling the surface, placing stakes to mark where the house will be situated on the lot and hooking up temporary electricity service. 
2. Excavation and the foundation of the structure: After site cleaning the land is dug to create a strong foundation, setting and pouring the foundation, installing plumbing pipes, pouring the concrete floor of the home, digging trenches for utility lines, waterproofing the basement walls and grading. A developer must ensure that his building has a strong foundation in order to sustain earthquakes, storms and so on.
3. Framing: This is when the structure is rising above the ground level that includes installing steel beams, erecting a wood structure and installing windows and exterior doors. During framing stage of construction, Column, beam, slab, staircase and walls are constructed. This may be execute with steel, concrete, wood etc. majority cost of your structure may consumed here only. Foundation and framing take approximately 60 to 65 % cost of your entire house.
4. Roofing and Exterior Work: Roofing and exterior work, which may include applying roofing materials and installing siding, an outdoor deck, rain gutters and a garage door etc.
5. Mechanicals Electrical and Plumbing work: This step may include installing plumbing, electrical and heating/cooling systems, pre-wiring the home for a security system, running wiring for telephones, cable television and an intercom and placing pipes for a central vacuum.
6. Interior finish work: This includes installing insulation, installing and finishing drywall, painting and staining, and installing cabinets, countertops, hard surface floor coverings, baseboards and built-in appliances.
7. Trim: It include hanging interior doors, attaching window trims, installing fireplaces and mantles, setting plumbing fixtures, installing light switches and electrical outlets, hanging electrical fixtures, setting heating registers, thermostats and heating/cooling unit and installing faceplates for the central vacuum, intercom, cable television and telephone outlets.
8. Final work: Includes installing carpet padding and carpets, cleaning the exterior and interior of the home, finishing the driveway and landscaping and completing any miscellaneous fix-up work on the entire home.


Get involved in your home building from the beginning and take an active interest in the pricing of materials and accessories/fittings offered to you. Home buying does not end by signing a mere contract but one must closely monitor the various stages of construction. A buyer must approach a developer and ask questions in case of discrepancies since many aspects of your home, such as structure and foundation, will be unchangeable after a certain point.

Tower Crane - Design Details

Design Check for Crane Supporting Boom for the Crane


The Crane tower needs to be supported laterally at certain interval from the RCC Building.

The interval can be say 30m.



The manufacturer has given a lattice section to be used as a lateral supporting member.

Check the capacity of the member under compression:

A = 4 Nos X 7.44 Cm2   = 29.76 Sq.m
L = 11m
I = A.x2   = 4 ( 7.44 X (30/2 - 1.81)2 )
I = 5177 Cm4

Therefore,   r =   I/A =   5177/29.74 = 13.1 cm

Therefore l/r min  =
        
                = 950 Kg/cm2

Therefore, Capacity of the section under compressive load =  σa.A

= 950 Kg/cm2    X 29.76 cm2

Pc = say 28T

In the absence of any specific load data,

Assuming maximum force in the connecting member can be plus/minus 10T maximum, the member seems to be safe.


The actual length of the member can be checked as per the site condition and the length of the member can be extended up to 11m as required upto splice joint.







(II) End Anchorage at the building slabs:

Try 6 Nos of M16 bolts to resist the force of 10T.
Assuming permissible shearstress = 1000 Kg/Cm2
Shear Capacity of one M16 bolt
= σss x net area
= 1000X 0.75 X П / 4X (1.6) 2
= 1000X1.5
= 1500 Kg

Total Force resisted by 6 Bolts = 6 X 1.5T = 9T < 10 T


Try M20 Bolts,

Shear capacity = 1000 X 0.75 X П / 4X (2) 2
                                       = 2355 Kg

Therefore Total Force Resisted by 6 Bolts

= 6 X 2.3T = 13.8 T > 10 T

Therefore, Provide 6 Nos M25 Bolts to connect the member with the building.








As per calculations, Crane tie should be provided in 7TH Floor, 14TH Floor and 19TH Floor respectively.

Basics of Surveying



Surveying Basics

1.0 Definitions
Surveying – the art of measuring distance and angles on or near the surface of the earth
Plane surveying – the land surface is considered to be a plane for all X and Y dimensions,
and all Z dimensions (height) are referenced to this plane. Most engineering surveys are
plane surveys, those that cover long distances may need to correct for the earth’s
curvature.

2.0 Equipment
notebook – record all your data and sketches
transit – used to establish straight lines and measure horizontal and vertical angles
tape – measures distances
level rod – measures distances in elevation
total station – electronic measuring instrument that records and processes field data
prism rod – locates the points of interest and reflect laser back to total station for angle
and distance measurements
engineer’s tape – measures the height of the instrument (transit or total station)
survey nails – locate points of interest for future use
two-way radios – keeps contact between the instrument person and the rod person
2.1 Notebook
One of the most important aspects of surveying is taking accurate, neat, legible, and
complete field notes. The degree of completeness comes from practice. Details that
seem obvious in the field may be obscure back in the office a couple weeks later.
Sketches of your surveyed area will also aid in comprehension and ordering of the data.
These sketches do not need to be to scale. Do not crowd your notes.
At a minimum, ALWAYS record the instrument height, rod height, occupying point,
backsight point, and datapoint ranges in your notebook. Then, if there was an error in
inputting the correct data into your total station, you have a double check. A description
and sketch of each surveyed point are very useful as well. Figure 2.1 shows the basics
that should be included in all field notebooks.

Figure 2.1. Diagram of data to include in field notebook.

2.2 Level Transits

Figure 2.2. Schematic of the use of a Level Transit

For the example shown in Figure 2.2, we can determine the elevation difference between
Points 1 and 2 as such:
Reading on Level Rod 1 from horizontal line of sight = 2.63 ft
Reading on Level Rod 2 from horizontal line of sight = 7.21 ft
Elevation Difference = 4.58 ft
The distance between the points can be determined with a measuring tape.
If elevation at the instrument is known:
Actual Elevation at Point 2 = Elev at instrument + HI + LR1 Reading – LR2 Reading

If elevation at Point 1 (backsight) is known:
Actual Elevation at Point 2 = Elev at Pt 1 + LR1 Reading – LR2 Reading

2.3 Total Stations
A total station records and processes all the data collected in the field. It measures
distances and angles by use of a laser shot from the instrument and reflecting prism on
the survey rod. A total station is simply a computer. It can only know what you input.
When you orient the total station with a 3-D location and an angle at each setup, it will
reference all ensuing point data to that.
2.3.1 Location
If there is a benchmark available that has known XYZ coordinates, then great, use that as
a setup or backsight point. Most sites that EWB work in will not have benchmarks. You
have two other options, and the choice depends on the level of detail needed in your
survey. If precise detail is needed, bring an accurate GPS system with you to locate your
position. If relative detail is needed, then enter any value for your location and reference
everything to that point, i.e. label your northing as 5000, easting as 10,000, and elevation
as 1000. If the precise coordinates are not necessary, this latter option may be easier to
perform in the field.

2.3.2 Angle
Just giving your total station a location lets it know where it is, but it doesn’t know where
it’s looking. So, you will have to orient the instrument as well. The options for doing
this again depend on the level of precision needed for the project. For accuracy and
precision, you can either bring a compass that tells you which direction is true north, or
you can shoot a second point that has known XYZ coordinates. Again, this latter one will
be very rare in most EWB locations. If you bring a compass, then station your prism rod
in the direction of true north and shoot with the total station. The instrument will then
know where it is and where it is looking.
If precision is not necessary, you can make an educated guess as the direction of north
(without the aid of a compass) and shoot the prism rod. This will at least orient your
instrument and the rest of your points will be referenced to this location and direction.

2.4 Leveling
For each setup, the survey instrument must be level. The locations and orientation
established above assume a level instrument. The basic procedure for tripod and
instrument leveling is provided below:
1. Center tripod over desired point at an appropriate height and make the base fairly level
2. Attach the instrument to the base screw (Note: Do not let go of instrument until the bottom screw has been attached)
3. Turn on the instrument if using a total station
4. Turn on the laser level or attach plumb
5. Maneuver the tripod to center the plumb on the control point
6. Coarse-level the instrument by adjust the tripod legs individually until the level
bubble is mostly centered (Note: this adjustment will only minimally adjust the location of the plumb)
7. To fine-tune the leveling, orient the three black fine-tune level knobs (at base of instrument) as a triangle with a point facing away from you
a. Adjusting the two closest to you at the same time, turning them both inward will move the bubble to the left. Turning them both outwards will move the bubble to the right.
b. Adjusting the knob away from you, turning it counter-clockwise will move the bubble away from you. Turning it clockwise will move it towards you.
8. After instrument is level, check location of plumb. If you are within a couple of inches, you may move the instrument by half-unscrewing the bottom screw and sliding the instrument into place. If you are too far off, then you will have to move the whole tripod into position.
9. Repeat until the instrument is level and over the correct point.

2.5 Viewscope Orientation
If you are using a total station, sometimes it may not be obvious as which way is up for
the survey gun. The correct orientation has the horizontal fine-tune knob on the lower
right and the vertical fine-tune knob on the upper left as you are sighting through the
instrument. Running the instrument upside-down will invalidate your data.

2.6 Moving the Instrument
When you shoot a point to use as your next location, place a nail or some other relatively
stable marker in the ground. Move the instrument to the new nail. When setting up the
total station, tell the instrument which point you are on. Since you have already shot this
point, it knows its location. Backsight to another control point, and the instrument will
now be correctly oriented and ready to continue on. Be sure to check your error after the
backsight. If it is large, there might have been a mistake in some previous measurement
that you’ll need to double check.

3.0 Point Descriptions
Be consistent with point descriptions. Label all your control points the same, i.e. do not
label them as “control1”, “control2”, etc. Label them all as “control” (or some variation
thereof) and let the point ID number be the differentiating factor between them. The
importance of these distinctions will become apparent if you are using a CAD program
afterwards to draw up your survey points, since each point descriptions will become its
own layer in the program.

Friday, February 14, 2014

Salaries - Mechanical Engineer, Electrical Engineer, Chemical Engineers



Skill Set
Education
Junior
Middle
Senior
Exp (Yrs)
Min. Salary
Max. Salary
Exp (Yrs)
Min. Salary
Max. Salary
Exp (Yrs)
Min. Salary
Max. Salary
ENGINEERING SERVICES
Manufacturing
BE / ME Mechanical
6-8
5.00
8.00
12-14
8.00
10.00
15-18
16.00
20.00
Production
BE / ME Production / Mechanical
6-8
5.00
8.00
10-12
9.00
12.00
13-16
15.00
18.00
Maintenance
BE Mechanical / Electrical
6-8
5.00
8.00
8-10
6.00
8.00
14-17
15.00
18.00
Quality
BE Mechanical / Electrical
6-8
5.00
8.00
10-12
7.00
10.00
14-16
16.00
22.00
Process
BE Mechanical / Electrical
6-8
5.00
8.00
10-13
7.00
10.00
15-18
14.00
17.00
Automation
BE Mechanical / Automation
6-7
5.00
8.00
8-10
6.00
8.00
12-15
13.00
16.00
Design
BE Mechanical / Electrical
6-8
5.00
8.00
10-12
7.00
10.00
14-17
15.00
22.00
Project
BE Mechanical / Electrical / Chemical
6-7
5.00
8.00
8-10
6.00
8.00
12-15
15.00
20.00
Materials
BE Mechanical
6-7
5.00
8.00
8-9
6.00
8.00
10-13
10.00
14.00
Purchase
BE Mechanical
7-8
5.00
8.00
7-8
5.00
8.00
10-12
10.00
14.00
Validation
BE Chemical / Mechanical
5-6
4.00
7.00
10-12
7.00
10.00
12-16
10.00
15.00
Instrumentation Engineer
BE Instrumentation
6-7
5.00
8.00
8-9
6.00
8.00
10-12
9.00
13.00
Electrical Engineer
BE Electrical
5-6
4.00
7.00
7-8
5.00
8.00
8-10
8.00
12.00
Mechanical Engineer
BE Mechanical
5-7
4.00
7.00
7-8
5.00
8.00
8-10
8.00
12.00
Civil Engineer
BE Civil
5-6
4.50
7.00
7-8
5.00
8.00
8-10
8.00
12.00
Paint Shop
BE Mechanical
6-7
5.00
8.00
8-10
6.00
8.00
10-12
9.00
12.00
New Product Introduction
BE Mechanical
7-8
5.00
8.00
10-12
7.00
12.00
12-15
10.00
14.00
Piping
BE Mechanical
7-8
5.00
8.00
10-12
7.00
12.00
13-16
11.00
14.00
Welding
BE Mechanical / Electrical
6-7
5.00
8.00
6-8
5.00
7.00
8-10
8.00
11.00
Supplier Quality
BE Mechanical
5-6
4.50
7.00
10-13
7.00
10.00
15-18
14.00
17.00
Plant Engineering
BE Mechanical / Electrical
5-6
4.50
7.00
10-12
7.00
10.00
14-16
13.00
16.00
Health Safety and Environment
BE Environmental
6-7
4.50
7.00
10-12
7.00
10.00
13-15
11.00
14.00
Logistics
BE Mechanical
5-6
4.00
7.00
12-15
8.00
10.00
16-20
12.00
15.00
Fire & Safety
BE Mechanical
5-6
4.00
7.00
8-10
6.00
8.00
10-12
9.00
13.00
Supply Chain Management
BE Mechanical
7-8
5.00
8.00
10-12
7.00
10.00
14-16
10.00
14.00
Shift supervisor plant engineering
BE Mechanical
6-7
5.00
8.00
8-9
6.00
8.00
10-12
9.00
13.00
Plant Inspection
BE Mechanical
6-7
5.00
8.00
8-10
6.00
8.00
12-15
13.00
16.00
Planning
BE Mechanical / Electrical
5-6
4.00
7.00
10-12
7.00
10.00
14-16
12.00
16.00
Business Development
BE Mechanical
5-6
4.00
7.00
10-12
7.00
10.00
13-16
10.00
14.00
Technical
BE Mechanical
7-8
5.00
8.00
12-15
8.00
10.00
15-19
14.00
17.00
Sales
BE Mechanical
6-7
5.00
8.00
10-12
7.00
10.00
16-18
16.00
20.00
Marketing
BE Mechanical
5-6
4.00
7.00
10-12
7.00
10.00
14-16
13.00
16.00
Design & Engineering
BE Mechanical / Electrical
7-8
5.00
8.00
12-15
8.00
10.00
18-20
18.00
25.00
PPC
BE Mechanical
8-9
5.00
8.00
12-14
8.00
10.00
18-19
16.00
20.00